Exercise modified (E. Czarny, E. Nojszewska, Mikroekonomia – zbiór zadań). The utility function of Barnaba is given as follows: U(x,y) = 8xy additional workouts in Polish: Czarny, E., E. Nojszewska, , ” Mikroekonomia: zbiór zadań”, PWE. additional workouts in Polish: Laidler, D. additional workouts in Polish: Czarny, E., E. Nojszewska, , ” Mikroekonomia: zbiór zadań”, PWE. additional workouts in Polish: Laidler, D., S. Estrin,

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Stiglitz reflected in excessive administrative regulation which restricts business initiative nojszewksa adversely affects the economy, including consumers8.

New and effective source of information is the leniency policy, which was introduced in the European Union inand has been in force in Poland since The price game played by oligopolists forces competitors to reduce costs and may eliminate weakest players thus increasing market concentration as well as transparency of the relevant market.

What are the economic grounds for such severe punishment? Cabral, Introduction to Industrial Organization, Cambridgep. It was analysed by the UOKiK in its explanatory proceedings czrny fuel prices at local gas stations28 discontinued in the end, mioroekonomia the uniformization retail prices was found to be the result of parallel actions of gas station owners or price following.

Fall semester 2012/2013

Included in writing during and at the end of the semester. Restricting market power resulting from a dominant position or cartel requires state intervention. Related publications Share Embed Add to favorites Comments. It is also important that the organisation of czarnny cartel is more time and cost efficient than building a dominant position by a company in its own relevant market Knowledge of the principles and mechanisms to restore market balance.

Mikołaj Czajkowski – Literatura

The use of market analysis to prove the existence or lack of market effects of an alleged cartel should concentrate on three goals generally understood as the goals of a cartel. The balance of the company with the conditions of perfect competition 7.

Particularly in the Polish economy, market dynamics causes the relevant data to be impossible to compare in the longer term because it is not long since most companies introduced electronic accounting and statistics systems that could provide such data in general, this is a period czwrny the year In the retake exam period in March there will be only one final test organized, taking the same form as the normal final test.


In the retake exam period in March there will be only one final test organized, taking the same form as the normal final test. Varian, Mikroe,onomia, Warszawap. A Modern Approach”, 6th ed. These effects are associated with the exercise of monopolistic practices. Economic dimension of cartels II. Motta, Competition Policy, p.

A digressive penalty scheme encourages cartel members to file leniency notices. A company or a consumer who suffered losses, due to monopolistic practices of a dominant undertaking or a cartel, may relay on private enforcement to alleviate them. The economics of competition law mentions the following factors facilitating cartel collusions Theory and Practice, Cambridgep.

Which methods make it possible to differentiate cartels from competition in oligopolistic markets including economic nojszewsa econometric analyses? While the economics of competition law is focusing more and more on the market effects of cartel operations, a key question arises: Similarly, a contribution to the financing of a sectorial association engaged in information exchange, or facilitating such exchange during the meetings of its members, is treated as costs of information collection.

Fall semester 2011/2012

Competition authorities are thus required 10 Ibidem, p. The Bertrand model assumes the existence of reserves in production capacity, as the purpose of the price game between competitors is customer interception. Economic dimension of cartels The Polish Competition and Consumers Protection Act of thereafter the Act of protects hojszewska as a public interest similarly to the situation found in other EU countries.

The absolute prohibition of cartels results from the fact that they lead to the monopolisation of the economy that restricts or even eliminates competition with all the negative consequences thereof.

Does growing market concentration and resulting transparency increase the significance of the economic approach to the evaluation of market effects of the behaviour of business? Monopolistic competition and oligopoly 9. Easterbrock, Antitrust Cases…, p.

Calaméo – Economic Approach to Counteracting Cartels

However, approaching the retake test cancels the result obtained from the first approach. The flexibility of supply and demand 4. In reality, a conflict between business goals and competition law principles is often apparent.


Second Edition, West Publishing The main characteristics of oligopoly include: They are considered to be negative because czanry achievement of such business goals may restrict competition and go against social interests7. This process is limited by entry and exit barriers It constitutes a manifestation of explicit collusion, even though some believe that such an exchange of information helps to better mikroekonomoa consumer needs and accelerates innovations.

Competition law is aimed against strategic barriers built by incumbents in their relevant markets. If the analysis of pricing policy and of the optimization of distributional logistics indicates that it was impossible to establish the existence of a cartel regulating these areas, then the presumption on fixing production quotas would be illogical.

Criteria and consequences of effectiveness of cartels VI. The economic concept of market failures justifies the implementation of competition law in order to limit or eliminate negative external effects of business activities.

Nevertheless, the focus has now clearly shifted towards cartels especially since the Act of has eliminated motions Articles 49 and 86 in favour of an ex officio initiation of competition law mikreokonomia. Market transparency and cartels V. A conclusion is drawn from the interdependence theory that conscious parallelism of decisions on prices and production quotas should not be treated as collusion and, consequently, as an illegal action subject to competition law enforcement Whish, Competition Law, London, Edinburghp.

Information about fuel prices at gas stations is public and displayed on pylons easily seen from a distance. Economic analyses, being fully aware of their statistical and methodological weaknesses, should be applied in anti-cartel proceedings in order to keep the equilibrium between a legalistic and an economic approach to the evaluation of business performance. This poses a warning for competition authorities that economic criteria and an economic analysis needs to be applied for an objective evaluation of the behaviour of market players.